What is the Anglo-Saxon period often called?
The Dark Ages
Who was the first person who may have written about England?
Roman General Julius Caesar
What name was given to the area where the Anglo-Saxons settled?
Angle-Land or England
What language did the Anglo-Saxon culture speak back then?
Old English
Who established the monastery at canterbury?
A missionary named augustine
The early literature of the Anglo-Saxon period took the form of what?
Lengthy epic poems
Where would kings and nobles gather on special occasions?
The mead halls
When did the Anglos and Saxons begin to arive?
From northern Europe around A.D. 449
Who were the Britons led by?
A celtic chieftain named Arthur
Where did the Viking’s come from?
Rocky, windswept coast of Denmark
Wha did the Vikings do?
Looted, killed and burned down entire empires
Who was the powerful Anglo-Saxon king?
Alfred the Great
What did Alfred the Great do?
Unified the English and learning and culture flourished
Who took the throne in 1042, after Alfred?
The deeply religious Edward the Confession
Who did Edward the Confessor say his heir was going to be?
French cousin William, duke of Normandy
What happened when Edward died?
A council of nobles and church officials chose an English earl named Harold to succeed him
What did William, duke of Normandy, do when he was not named heir to Edward?
Led his Norman army in what was to be the last successful invasion of the island of Britain
When was Harold killed?
Battle of Hastings; 1066
Who was named King of England on Christmas Day 1066?
William the Conqueror
What did the Norman Conquest end?
Anglo-Saxon dominance in England
Losing their land to the conquerors, what happened to people and families?
Noble families and people sank into the peasantry; and a new class of privileged Normans took their place
Anglo-Saxon religion was marked by a strong belief in what?
Wyrd, or fate and they saved their admiration for heroic warriors whose fate it was to prevail in battle
What did christianity do for the Anglo-Saxon?
Opened up a bright new possibility; that the suffering of this world was merely a prelude to the eternal happiness of heaven?
Where did christianity spread to?
Ireland and Scotland, and from Scotland to the Picts and Angles in the north
Who arrived in the Kingdom of Kent in 597?
Roman missionary named Augustine
What did Monasteries become?
Centers of intellectual, literary, artistic, and social activity
What did monasteries offer?
The only opportunity for education
The earliest recorded history of the English people came from what?
The clergy at the monasteries
The early literature of the Anglo-Saxon period mostly took the form of what?
Lengthy epic poems praising the deeds of heroic warriors
What did the Anglo-Saxons do in the great mead halls?
Feasted on pies and roasted meats, and listened to scops
What was scops?
Professional poets who would bring the epic poems to life
To the Anglo-Saxon, what were the epic poems?
A history lesson, moral sermon, and pep talk rolled into one, instilling cultural pride and teaching how a true hero should behave
What is the most famous survived anglo saxon epic poem?
Beowulf
What is Beowulf about?
A legendary hero of the Northern European past; in more than 3,000 lines, Beowulf relates the tale of a heroic warrior who battles monsters and dragons to protect the people
How does Beowulf’s death come?
Wounds incurred in his final, great fight against the monsters and dragons
WHat else did scops sing?
Shorter poems, called lyric poems
What did “The Seafarer” reflect?
A more everyday reality; the wretchedness of a cold, wet sailor clinging to his storm-tossed boat; the misery and resentment of his wife, left alone for months or years not knowing if her husband would ever return
What manuscript contains many of the surviving Anglo-Saxon lyrics, including more than 90 riddles?
Exeter Book
Who was Caedmon?
A monk known for writing Old English Poems
What did Alfred encourage?
English translations of the Bible and other Latin works
What period was one of the social turbulence and unrest?
The medieval period
What was the most valuable characteristics of Old English?
it’s ability to change and grow to adopt new words as they needed
Who is Higlac?
Beowulf’s ancestor
Who is Hrothgar?
king of the danes
Who are the Danes?
danish people plaugued by terrorizing evil
Who are the Geat’s?
Beowulf’s people
What is a hrunting?
Beowulf’s sword
What is herot?
mean’s heart; Hrothgar’s mead hall, or celebration place
Who is Beowulf?
-great warrior
-epic hero
Who is Grendel?
evil spawn of cain, seeks to destroy Hrothgar’s people
Who seeks revenge for Grendel?
his mother
What is the dragon?
guardian treasure for 100 years, killed by Beowulf and Wiglaf, gives Beowulf a mortal wound
Who is Wiglaf?
Beowulf’s trusted friend, fights with him till the end
What are scops?
professional poets
What are Monks?
transcribed tales by poets(scope)
What are monasteries?
a center of holy worship, a repository for manuscripts and learning
What are mead halls?
large buildings in the center of a village used for a variety of events
What was the dark ages?
the concept of a period of intellectual darkness and economic regressions that occurred in europe following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
What are Kennings?
poetic devices used in Anglo-Saxon literature, a compound word used in place of a now
What is an alliteration?
the repetition of consonant sounds
What is a lair?
the den or living space for an animal
What is chain mail?
a shirt/material comprised of small interlocking rings
Who were the Anglo-Saxon’s?
german descent; 5th century inhabitants of england
What happened in 1066AD?
the norman conquest
What happened in 700AD?
when the epic poem beowulf was probably written
What is the 1st trait of an epic hero?
a noble birth

-most héros will have an above average station in life
they will be kings, princes or nobles of some sort
-commoners usually do not become epic hero’s

What is the 2nd trait of an epic hero?
capable of deeds of great strength and courage

-the actions the hero do are well above and beyond of a normal person

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What is the 3rd trait of an epic hero?
a great warrior

-spends a lot of time fighting in the war
-has spent much time in battle

What is the 5th trait of an epic hero?
National Heroism

-before a hero can be celebrated by countries in the world over, he must first be recognized in his home country as a great and heroic person

What is the 6th trait of an epic hero?
Humility

-he is never a bragger or willing to take an applause
-he commits his deeds because he knows they need doing, and the fame and rewards that he receives are only a matter of course, not the reasons for completing his quest

What is 7th trait of an epic hero?
faces supernatural foes and/or receives supernatural help

-most epic hero’s either receive aid from a god or goddess or battle some superhuman enemy
-they fight something normal mortals can not battle
-for each hero, the enemy is unique. you won’t see two he roe’s battling the same foe

What are the 7 traits of an epic hero?
1) a noble birth
2)capable of deeds of great strength and courage
3) great warrior
4)travels over vast setting
5)national heroism
6) humility
7)faces supernatural foes and or recieves supernatural help