GENRE OF THE POETRY
HEROIC, ELEGIAC, RELIGIOUS POEMS, BIBLICAL PARAPHRASES, VERSE SAINTS’ LIVES, CHARMS

HEROIC LIST
BEOWULF, THE BATTLE OF MALDON, BRUNANBURH, THE LONG PRIMARY EPIC

ELEGIAC POEMS LIST
THE SEAFARER, THE WANDERER

RELIGIOUS POEMS LIST
THE DREAM OF THE ROOD

4 MSS
The exetEr book, vercelli book, the beowulf MS=cotton vitellius A xv, the junius MS

poetic style
vocabulary compounds, formulae, diff syntax

heroic poems are part of the
germanic heritage, legends, verse making, style, verse form

verse form of germanic heritage
4-stress alliterative line

heroic lays
performance about the hero of scop anglo saxon poet

heroic ladys list
widsith, deor, waldere, fight at finnsburgh

widsith
kingship, exeter book

deor
mutability of scop’s fortune, elegiac tone, ubi sunt topic

waldere
epic fragment, praise of a sword

fight at finnsburgh
fragment of a pagan lay, referred to in beowulf

longer epic poems, chronicle poems list
the battle of brunanburh, the battle of maldon

brunanburh about
the victory of king aethelstan over the joing viking-celtic forces, 937

maldon is about
byrthnoth’s fight and defeat by the viking forces, about heroic behaviour, loyalty

beowulf term
the longest complete germanic primary epic

beowulf preserved in
MS COTTON VITELLIUS A. xv

theory of beowulf
clerical person familiar with traditional ways composed the epic in its present form in writing,oral style

story of beowulf
event 6th c, from the 8th c, late 10th c

author of beowulf
refined, reflective, christian anglo-saxon poet

aims of heroic poems
records of historical evens, heroes set an example, entertainment

topics of heroic poems
desire of fame or glory
aristocratic warrior heroes, boasting
lord and his retinue, kinship, feud, gift-givign

structure of heroic poems
the hero’s rise and fall suggest that even a long life is of fleeting brevity

climatic beowulf
growing challenges

conflation of history and fantasy
fictional or legendary character inserted into the historical setting,legendary setting: monsters, dragons, heroes of the germanic past

christian versus pagan
celebration of pagan heroes without endorsing their religious beliefs, delicacy of selection and emphasis

Wyrd
PAGAN DOOM OR CHRISTIAN PROVIDENCE

MYTHOLOGY
GERMANIC DEMONOLOGY, CHRISTIAN CONCEPTS OF EVIL

IRONY
MINDLY APPROVING STATEMENTS THAT SUGGESTS THE OPPOSITE

EXAMPLE ON IRONY IN BEOWULF
SCOP’S SPEECH ABOUT SIGEMUND, WHO COMMITTED INCEST

characterization with irony
hrothgar’s case

style
ornamented, manneristic, formulae, decorated speeches, 6 variations of the verse form

compounding
endless lines of synonyms warrior, sea, ship, sword

kenning
a form of compound , at least one element is metaphorical road = sea

variation
simple syntax with synonyms wordum wrixlan to vary words

four stress alliterative line
two half-lines with a caesura between them , alliteration connects 2 halves

scholars and translators of beowulf
michael j. alexander, nora kershaw, william morris, francis barton gummere