Rime Scheme
The order in which rimed words recur (ex. a b a b)

Refrain
Words, phrases, or lines repeated at intervals in a song or songlike poem

Terminal Refrain
This group of repeated lines usually follows immediately after a stanza

Incremental Refrain
A group of repeated lines whose words change slightly with each recurrence

Internal Refrain
A group of repeated lines that appears within a stanza, generally in a position that stays fixed throughout a poem

Madrigals
Short secular songs in Shakespeare’s day for three or more voice-parts arranged in counterpoint

Troubadours
Minstrels of the late Middle Ages

Folk Ballads
Anonymous story-songs transmitted orally before they were ever written down

Ballad
Any narrative song

Ballad Stanza
A favorite pattern which typically has four lines a rime scheme of “a b c b” with 8 syllables for the 1st and 3rd lines, and 6 syllables for the 2nd and 4th

Common Meter
A stanza found in hymns. Similar to the ballad stanza but it’s rime scheme is “a b a b”

Broadside Ballad
Old works that were often set to traditional tunes. Context could include the news, a sad story, or a humorous tale

Doggerel
A verse full of irregularities due not to skill but incompetence

Protest Songs
Broadside poems of the 19th cent. that were often used to convey social or political messages

Literary Ballads
Not meant for singing, these are written by sophisticated poets for book-educated readers who enjoy being reminded of folk ballads. May contain similar content to the latter

euphony
When, in a poem, the sound of words working together with meaning pleases mind and ear

Cacophony
A harsh, discordant effect both in meaning and in sound

Onomatopoeia
A word that when read, sounds like its meaning. Ex. zap, buzz, whoosh

Alliteration
A succession of similar *sounding* consonants (not necessarily the same letter); can be found in the beginning, middle, or end of words.

Assonance
A succession of similar *sounding* vowels

Rime
When two or more words or phrases contain identical or similar vowel-sound, usually accented, and any consonant *sounds* that follow the vowel are identical (ex. hay, sleigh)

Exact Rime
Sounds following the vowel sound that have to be the same (ex. red, bread)

Slant Rime (or near rime, off rime, or partial rime)
If the consonant sounds after the vowel are the same, but the vowels are different (ex. sun with 1) bone, 2) moon, 3) rain etc.)

Consonance
A kind of slant rime, when the rimed words or phrases have the same consonant sounds but a different vowel (ex. chitter, chatter)

End Rime
Rime comes *at the end* of two or more words

Internal Rime
Rime comes *in the middle* of two or more words

Masculine Rime
A rime of one-syllable words (ex. jail, bail), or stressed final syllables [in more-than-one-syllable-words] (ex. diVORCE, reMORSE)

Feminine Rime
A rime of two or more syllables with stress on a syllable other than the last. (ex. TURtle, MYRtle)

Eye Rime
Spellings look alike but pronunciations differ (rough, dough. idea, flea)