denotation
dictionary meaning(s) of the word

connotation
suggested beyond what is expresses

imagery
representation through language of sense experience

auditory imagery
image that represents a sound

olfactory imagery
image that represents a smell

gustatory imagery
image that represents a taste

organic imagery
image that represents an internal sensation (hunger, thirst, nausea)

kinesthetic imagery
image that represents movement or tension

figure of speech
any way of saying something other than the ordinary way

figurative language
language using figures of speech

metaphor
an implied comparison

similie
a comparison using a word or phrase (like, as, than, similar to, resembles, seems)

personification
giving human attributes to an animal, object, or concepts

apostrophe
addressing someone or thing that cannot answer back (someone absent, dead, nonhuman)

synecdoche
use of part to describe the whole

metonymy
the use of something related for the thing actually meant

symbol
something that means more than what it is

allegory
a narrative or description that has a second meaning beneath the surface

paradox
an apparent contradiction that is true

overstatement
exaggeration (describing something as more than it actually is)

hyperbole (literary term)
exaggeration

understatement
saying less than one meant

verbal irony
saying the opposite of what one means

sarcasm
bitter or cutting speech

satire
ridicule of human folly or vice (formal term used in literature)

irony of situation
discrepancy exists between actual circumstances and those that would seem appropriate

dramatic irony
discrepancy between what speaker says and what poem means

allusion
a reference to something in history or previous literature

tone
writer’s or speaker’s attitude about the subject, audience, or self

alliteration
repetition of initial consonant sounds (tried and true; safe and sound)

assonance
repetition of vowel sounds (mad as a hatter; time out of mind)

consonance
repetition of final consonant sounds (odds and ends; short and sweet)

rhyme
repetition of accented vowel sound and all succeeding sounds

masculine rhyme
rhyme sound involves only one syllable (decks and sex; retort and support)

feminine rhyme
rhyme sounds involve two or more syllables (turtle and fertile; spitefully and delightfully)

internal rhyme
when one or more rhyming words are within a line

end rhyme
when rhyming words are at the ends of lines

slant rhyme
words with any sound similarity

rhythm
wavelike recurrence of motion or sound

meter
kind of rhythm we can tap our foot to

verse
metrical language

prose
nonmetrical language

iamb
unstressed stressed

trochee
stresses unstressed

anapest
unstressed unstressed stressed

dactylic
stressed unstressed unstressed

spondee
stressed stressed

amphibrach
unstressed stressed unstressed

caesura
a pause in the middle of a line (due to punctuation or natural phrasing/syntax)

monometer
one foot

dimeter
two feet

trimeter
three feet

tetrameter
four feet

pentameter
five feet

hexameter
six feet

heptameter
seven feet

octameter
eight feet

scansion
process of measuring verse

free verse
close to common speech

euphony
any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds

cacophony
harsh confusing disagreeable sounds

continuous form
lines follow each other without formal grouping

stanzas
repeated units having the same number of lines

fixed form
pattern that applies to whole poem

limerick
a humorous verse form of 5 anapestic lines with a rhyme scheme aabba

Italian (Petrarchan) sonnet
eight lines, six lines

octave
eight lines

sestet
six lines

english sonnet
three quatrains and a concluding couplet