a poetic form having nineteen lines; and five stanzas, each of three lines, with a final one of four. The first line of the first stanza is repeated as the last line of the second and fourth stanzas; the third line of the first stanza is repeated as the last line of the third and fifth stanzas; these two refrain lines follow each to become the second-to-last and last lines of the poem. The rhyme scheme is aba; rhymes are repeated according to the refrains
sonnet (Italian or Petrarchan)
a poetic form having fourteen, usually iambic, lines divided into an octave of eight lines and a sestet of six. The octave has a rhyme scheme of abbacddc. The sestet can have a number of rhyme schemes, including cdcdcd, cddcdc, cdecde, cdeced, or cdcedc
sonnet (English or Shakespearean)
a poetic form having fourteen, usually iambic, lines divided into three quatrains of four lines and a couplet of two. The rhyme scheme is ababcdcdefefgg.
a poetic form consisting of short narrative usually arranged in four line stanzas with a distinctive and memorable meter. The usual meter is first and third line with four stresses—iambic tetrameter—and a second and fourth with three stresses—iambic trimeter. The rhyme scheme is typically abab or abcb. The poems have distinctive subject matter that is almost always about communal stories of lost love, supernatural happenings, or recent events. The poems employ popular and local speech and dialogue often and vividly to convey a story.
a poem that serves as a lament that mourns for a dead person, lists his or her virtues, and seeks consolation beyond the momentary event. The poem will often express a personal loss and a cultural grief with the subject shown to be possessed of social virtues.
a poem that imitates and celebrates the virtues of rural life. Contemporary versions often mourn and celebrate rural life and idyllic settings.
a poem that was originally a solemn, heroic, and elevated form, for a person, object or event. More contemporary versions examine and exalt a broader range of subjects including lyric crisis.