mandate of heaven
heaven granted each dynastic ruler a right to rule

China
What is the world’s oldest surviving civilization?

yellow river basin
Where did China begin?

uji
tribal organizations that dominated Japanese society

samurai
a class that included lords (daimyo) that carried swords and followed a code of bravery, loyalty, and honor

daimyo
another Japanese name for lords

shintoism
the practice of nature worship; belief that elements of nature were inhabited by spirits called kami

kami
name of the spirits that inhabited nature in Shintoism

zen
a form of Buddhism that emphasizes the attainment of tranquility and insight through mental and physical discipline

the book of songs
oldest collection of Chinese poetry that are about farming, love and war; made up of 305 poems chosen by Confucius

shih
rigid Chinese poetic form with an even number of lines with the same number of words

tanka
most prevelant verse form in Japanese literature; five lines of five, seven, five, seven, and seven syllables; contain a caesura (pause); express a single thought about love or nature

renga
chains of interlocking tanka

haiku
consists of three lines of five, seven, and five syllables; focuses on nature and contains a kigo (seasonal word); comparing two images

confucianism
social philosophy; moral nature of relationships; respect authority

taoism
relation of humanity to nature; humans are a part of nature; simple life

buddhism
earth is filled with suffering

neo- confucianism
seek enlightenment through a combination of meditation and block printing

traditional Chinese government
pyramid shaped hierarchy with an emperor at the top, followed by officials

Lao Tzu
means “Old Master”; author of the Tao Te Ching, basic text of Taoist philosophy

Tao Te Ching
means “the way and its power”; written to understand the way of the universe and use understanding for self- preservation; tells a ruler how to ensure survival of kingdom during chaos

Confucious
emphasized the importance of moral conduct, duty, and education; his words form the Analects

aphorisms
short statements expressing general truths or principles

tao
force that controlled the universe

ren
Confucianist word for benevolence

T’ao Ch’ien
went from a government official to a poetry author; wrote poems about simplicity of landscapes/ nature and activites

Li Po
supreme master of Chinese poetry; free- spirited poetry style about freedom and harmony with nature

Tu Fu
master of Shih poetry; poems about social issues and destruction in China; criticizes extravagance of the nobility

songs
poems that were originally set to music and have strong, repeated rhythms

ballads
songs that tell stories

anecdotes
short accounts of amusing or interesting events

caesura
pause in a tanka

kigo
seasonal word found in a haiku

basho
haikus about sun, clouds, and other nature scenes

buson
haikus about spring rain

issa
haikus about the milky way, dew, and killing frogs