act
one of the main divisions of a play or opera

aside
short speech heard by the audience but not by the other characters in the play

alliteration
a repetition of similar sounds, usually consonants or consonant characters, in a group of words

character
a person, or anything presented as a person, in a literary work

couplet
two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme

closed couplet
A rhymed couplet forming a complete thought or syntactic unit

comedy
a literary work which is amusing and ends well

drama
a story acted out, usually on a stage, by actors and actresses who take the parts of specific characters

dialouge
a conversation between characters

stage directions
A playwright’s descriptive or interpretive comments that provide readers (and actors) with information about the dialogue, setting, and action of a play

conventions
unrealistic devices or procedures that the reader (or audience) agrees to accept

epilogue
An appendix (usually a concluding address) to a play

foil
a character in a play who sets off the main character or other characters by comparison

figurative language
language that is not intended to be interpreted in a literal sense

figure of speech
an example of figurative language that states something is not literally true in order to create an effect

iambic pentameter
every line is ten syllables

imagery
language that appeals to any sense or any combination of senses

petrarchan sonnet
a fourteen-line lyric poem consisting of two parts: the octave (or first eight lines)and the sestet (or last six lines)

genre
a literary type or form

monologue
a long, uninterrupted speech (in a narrative or drama) that is spoken in the presence of other characters

irony of situation
result of an action is the reverse of what the actor and audience expected

dramatic irony
the audience knows something that the characters in the drama do not

verbal irony
contrast is between the literal meaning of what is said and what is meant

quatrain
usually, stanza or poem of four lines

repetition
the return of a work, phrase, stanza form, or effect in any form of literature

Shakespearean sonnet
a fourteen-line lyric poem consisting of three quatrains (four line stanzas) and a concluding couplet (two rhyming lines)

pun
usually, the humorous use of a word or phrase to suggest two or more meanings at the same time

scene
a division with no change of locale or abrupt shift of time

sestet
the last six lines or a Petrarchan sonnet

octave
the first eight lines of a Petrarchan sonnet

set
scenery and staging of a dramatic production

soliloquy
a speech, usually lengthy, in which a character, along on stage, expresses his or her thoughts aloud

sonnet
a fourteen-line lyric poem, usually written in rhymed iambic pentameter (in lines of ten syllables with a stress on every other syllable)

staging
The spectacle a play presents in performance, including the position of actors on stage, the scenic background, the props and costumes, and the lighting and sound effects

stanza
a group of lines forming a unit in a poem

suspension of disbelief
a willingness to suspend one’s critical faculties and believe the unbelievable; sacrifice of realism and logic for the sake of enjoyment

tragedy
in general, a literary work in which the central character meets an unhappy or disastrous end

tragic flaw
A weakness or limitation of character, resulting in the fall of the tragic hero

metaphor
a comparison between two unlike things with the intent of giving added meaning to one of them

extended metaphor
a metaphor that is extended through a stanza or entire poem, often by multiple comparisons of unlike objects or ideas