verbal irony
occurs when a speaker or narrator says one thing while meaning the opposite

situational irony
occurs when a situation turns out differently from what one would normally expect- though often the twist is oddly appropriate

dramatic irony
occurs when a character or speaker says or does something that has different meanings from what he or she thinks it means, though the audience and other characters understand the full implications of the speech or action

metaphor
is a comparison of two unlike things not using “like” or “as”

mood
is the atmosphere or predominant emotion in a literary work

motivation
is a circumstance or set of circumstances that prompts a character to act in a certain way or that determines the outcome of a situation or work

narration
is the telling of a story in writing or speaking

onomatopoeia
(imitative harmony) is the use of words that mimic the sounds they describe

oxymoron
is a form of paradox that combines a pair of opposite terms into a single unusual expression

paradox
occurs when the elements of a statement contradict each other. Although the statement may appear illogical, impossible, or absurd, it turns out to have a coherent meaning that reveals a hidden truth

personification
is a kind of metaphor that gives inanimate objects or abstract ideas human characteristics

plot
is the sequence of events or actions in a short story, novel, play, or narrative poem

point of view
is the perspective from which a narrative is told

prosody
is the study of sound and rhythm in poetry

protagonist
is the central character of a drama, novel, short story, or narrative poem

pun
is a play on words that are identical or similar in sound but have sharply diverse meanings