irony
a contrast between what is expected and what really happens

consonance
repetition of consonant sounds in stressed syllables without repetition of vowel sounds (Shelley sells shells by the seashore)

allusion
reference to a person, place, thing or event that is known from literature, history, or other aspects of culture (Don’t act like a Romeo in front of her)

metaphor
comparison between two unlike things without using connective words (The assignment was a breeze)

meter
the alteration of stressed and unstressed syllables; beat

onomatopoeia
the use of a word whose sound imitates or suggests its meaning (meow, grrrr, blurt…)

symbol
a person, place, thing or event that stands for itself and for something beyond itself (A red rose or red color stands for love or romance”)

aliteration
a repetition of initial consonant sounds in tow or more neighboring words (rough and ready…)

tone
the attitude a writer takes toward the reader, subject or character (Father: “We are going on a vacation.”
Son: “That’s great!!!) the son shows cheerfullness

rhythm
a generally regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poems

refrain
a repeated word, phrase, line or group of lines (similar to a chorus in a song)

stanza
a group of consecutive lines in a poem that form a single unit (similar to a paragraph in writing)

simile
a comparison between two unlike things by using a connective word such as like, as, than, or resembles (your face is like the sun on a day)

paradox
a seemingly contradictory idea or statement that may actually be true (Your enemy’s friend is your enemy)

assonance
the repetition of similar vowel sounds followed by consonant sounds in words that are close together (mEn sEll the wEdding bElls)

sonnet
a fourteen line lyric poem that may have one of several rhyme schemes

ballad
a song or song-like poem that tells a story

personification
a kind of metaphor in which a non-human thing or quality is talked about as if it were human (The fire swallowed the entire forest)

hyperbole
overstatement or exaggeration of actions, emotions or other qualities. (I have seen this river so wide it only had one bank!)

imagery
language that speaks to the senses, uses adjectives and descriptive words (the cool morning dripped with dew)

prose
the ordinary form of spoken or written language, not poetic language

haiku
a Japanese verse form consisting of three lines and seventeen syllables

couplet
two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme

elegy
often a poem that mourns the dead

free verse
poetry that has no regular meter or rhyme scheme

verse
another word for poetry

rhyme
repetition of final sounds in two or more words (bed head)

fiction
creative or made-up literature

non-fiction
writing that is basically true

genre
mean “category” of writing or other art