Three uses of language
1. practical: communicate information
2. literary: can be used as a gear for stepping up the intensity and increasing the range of our experience and as a glass for clarifying it.
3. Argumentative: an instrument of persuasion

How does poetry allow us to participate in it?
1. by broadening our experience
2. by deepening our experience

Poetry must appeal to the whole person
1. intellectual dimension
2. sensuous dimension
3. emotional dimension
4. imaginative dimension

How to read a poem?
1. Read the poem more than once
2. Keep a dictionary by you and use it
3. Read so as to hear the sounds of the words in your mind. Poetry is written to be heard: its meanings are carefully conveyed through sound as well as through print.
4. Always pay careful attention to what the poem is saying
5. Practice reading poems aloud
-read it affectionately
-read slowly enough so that each word is clear and distinct
– read the poem so that the rhythmical pattern is felt

Ask four questions about each poem
1. Who is the speaker?
2. What is the occasion?
3. What is the central purpose of the poem?
-tell a story, reveal a human character, impart a vivid impression of a scene, express a mood or emotion, convey attitude or idea.
4. By what means is the purpose achieved?

1. visual imagery
2. auditory imagery: sound
3. Olfactory imagery: smell
4. Gustatory imagery: taste
5. Tactile imagery: touch, hot, cold
6. Organic imagery- internal sensation (hunger, thirst)
7. Kinesthetic imagery: movement

1. both the literal term and figurative terms are named.
2. the literal term is named, the figurative term is implied.
3. the literal term is implied, the figurative term is named
4. both the literal and the figurative term are implied

Why is figurative language a more effective way in saying what we mean? affords a more imaginative pleasure
2. it’s a way of bringing additional imagery into verse, of making the abstract concrete, of making poetry more sensuous.
3. It adds emotions intensity to otherwise merely informative statements, and of conveying attitudes along with information
4. it’s an effective mean of concentration, a way of saying much in brief compass

1. means what it is, and something more
2. most richest and most difficult poetic figures.
3. vary in degree of identification and definition given by author

Overstatement place a caution
1. exaggeration in the service of truth
2. hyperbole
3. overstatement may seem strained and ridiculous

Explain the types of irony
1. verbal
2. dramatic
3. irony of situation

What is the danger of using allusions?
1. beginning readers may miss allusions altogether
2. the author may be misunderstood

How is a poem more than an idea?
1. the idea of the poem is only part of the total experience that it communicates.
2. the value and worth of the poem is determined by the value of the total experience, not by the truth and nobility of the idea itself.
3. The primary value of the poem depends more on the power with which the idea is communicated and its conjunction with the total experience.

The poet achieves musical qualities two ways:
1. by the choice and arrangement of sounds
2. by the arrangement of accents

Different types of rhyme
1. masculine: rhyme sounds involve one syllable
2. feminine: rhyme sounds involve two or more syllables.
3.internal rhyme: when 1 or more rhyming words are within one line
4.end rhyme: when rhyming words are at ends of lines.
5. Approximate rhyme (slant rhyme): include words with any kind of sound similarity from close to fairly remote.

Cautions about analyzing
1. repetition is entirely a matter of sound, spelling is irrelevant
2. alliteration, assonance, consonance, and masculine rhyme are matters that ordinarily involve only stressed or accented syllables; for only such syllables ordinarily make enough impressions on the ear to be significant in the sound patterns of the poem.
3. Words involved in these repetitions must be close enough together that the ear retains the sound, consciously or subconsciously, from its first occurrence to its second

1. based on accents and stresses
2. based on pauses

types of metrical feet
1. iamb: ./
stress on second syllable
2. trochaic foot: /. stressed then unstressed
3. Anapestic foot: ../
4. dactylic foot: /..
5.spondaic foot: //
6. pyrrhic foot: ..
7. amphibrach foot: ./.

Kinds of metrical lines
1. monometer: one foot line
2. dimeter: two foot line
3. trimeter: three foot line
4. tetrameter: four foot line
5. pentameter: five foot line
6. hexameter: six foot line
7. heptameter: seven foot line
8. octameter: 8 foot line

Metrical variation
1. substitution: replacing the regular foot with another one
2. extra-metrical syllables: added at the beginning or end of a line
3.Truncation: the omission of an unaccented syllable at either end of a line.

1. identify the prevailing foot the number of feet in a line
3.describe the stanzaic pattern

1. read the poem so that metrical pattern is apparent
2. scansion only begins to reveal the rhythmic quality
3. divisions between feet have no meaning except to help us identify the meter
4. perfect regularity of meter is no criterion of merit

sound and meaning
1. poet can choose words whose sound in some degree suggests their meaning.
2. choose sounds and group them so that the effect is smooth and pleasant (euphonious) or rough and harsh sounding (cacophonous)
3.controlling the speed and movement of the lines by the choice and use of meter, consonant sounds, and by the disposition of pauses.
4. control both sound and meter in such a way as to emphasize words that are important to meaning.

1. continuous form
2. stanzaic form
3. terza rima, rhyme royal, spenserian stanza
4. Fixed form

Terza rima, rhyme royal, spenserian stanza
1. the rhyme scheme
2. the position of the refrain
3. the prevailing metrical foot
4. number of feet in each line

1. Italian or petrarchan: divided between 8 lines called the octave, and six lines called the sestet.
2. English or shakesperean: consists of 3 quatrains and a concluding couplet rhyme
3. Villanelle: requires only two rhyme souns and its 19 lines are divided into 5-3 line stanzas

1. difficult and hard to compose
2. can achieve haunting and unforgettable effects

Evaluating poetry
1. What is its central purpose?
2. How fully has this purpose been accomplished?
3. How important is its purpose?

How important is its purpose?
1. a wholly successful poem contains no excess words
2. each word is the best word for expressing the total meaning
3. the word order is the best order
4. the sound of the poem does not clash with its sense
5. the organization of the poem is the best possible.

Types of poetry
1. sentimentality
3. didactic

Cautions with poetry
1. be neither hasty nor timorous in making your judgements
2. do not try to found out others opinions before forming your own
3. Do not allow your opinion to harden into a narrow-minded bias

Why read poetry?
1. gives pleasure enjoyment,
2. central to existence, better off having

Do not look for?
1. a lesson or moral instruction
2. something necessarily beautiful

What does literature do?
1. communicates significant experience, allows for participation
2. broadens experience
3. deepens experience ( poignant)

3 parts of the word
1. sound (tone noise)
2. denotation (dictionary definition)
3.connotation ( what the word suggests beyond what it expresses)

Task in reading poetry
1. develop sense of language
2. extensive dictionary use
3. extensive reading

Art gives structure to which two elements
1. repetition
2. variation

Purpose of repetition
1. please the ear
2. emphasis repeated words
3. gives poem structure

Units of measurement
1. feet
2. lines
3. stanza

How to introduce variation?
1. substituting feet
2. varying degrees of accents from prose meaning

How is poetry arranged?
1. form
2. structure

What is great poetry?
1. engages the person
2. entertain and enlightens us
3. gives deeper, broader meaning and understanding of life