allusion
a short reference to a person, a place, an event, or another work of literature

alliteration
the repetition of sounds at the beginning of words and of sounds within words

apostrophe
a figure of speech in which a writer directly addresses an inanimate object, idea, or absent person

assonance
the repetition of similar vowel sounds in a line of poetry

blank verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter

caesura
the pause or break in a line of poetry, usually created by punctuation

conceit
a lengthy, unusual comparison, often extended through an entire poem

connotation
the suggestions or associations carried with a word beyond its denotation, or literal meaning

consonance
the repetition of consonance sounds in a line of poetry

couplet
two consecutive lines of poetry that rhyme

denotation
the literal meaning, or dictionary definition, of a word

dramatic poem
a poem that reveals character through dialogue and monologue

epic
a long narrative poem that traces the adventures of a hero

figurative language
language that is not meant to be taken literally

foot
the basic unit of meter in a line of poetry

free verse
poetry that has irregular rhythm and line length and that avoids a predetermined verse structure

haiku
a Japanese verse form consisting of three lines, usually describing an image of a subject in nature

imagery
the collection of mental pictures, or images in a literary work

limerick
a humorous five-line poem in which the first, second, and fifth line rhyme and have the rhythm ^’/^^’/^^’, and the third and fourth lines rhyme with each other and have the rhythm ^^’/^^’

lyric poem
a poem that expresses primarily the personal thoughts and feelings of the poet

metaphor
a comparison that identifies one thing with another, seemingly very different thing

meter
a generally regular pattern of stressed and unstressed symbols in a line of poetry

narrative poem
a poem that tells a story

onomatopoeia
the use of words with sounds that suggest their meanings

personification
a figure of speech in which human qualities are given to objects, animals, and ideas

repetition
a device used to emphasize the importance of words and ideas particularly in persuasive writing and poetry

rhyme
the use of similar or identical sounds in the accented syllables of two or more words

rhyme scheme
the pattern of end rhymes in a poem

rhythm
the arrangement of stresses and unstressed syllables in a poem

run-on line
a line of poetry that has no pause at the end but flows into the next line

simile
a figure of speech that states a comparison by using like or as to indicate the comparison

stanza
a group of lines forming a unit in a poem

symbol
a person, place, or thing that has meaning in itself and also stands for something other that itself

theme
the main idea that the writer of a literary work communicates to the reader

tone
the attitude the writer takes towards his or her subject, characters, and readers