sonnet
a verse form consisting of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme

Shakespearian sonnet
a lyric poem of 14 lines, written in iambic pentameter wit 3 quatrains and a concluding couplet. The 3 quatrains present a problem and the couplet presents a solution

English sonnet
a sonnet consisting three quatrains and a concluding couplet in iambic pentameter with the rhyme pattern abab cdcd efef gg

Spenserian sonnet
a sonnet consisting of three quatrains and a concluding couplet in iambic pentameter with the rhyme pattern abab bcbd cdcd ee

Miltonic sonnet
Variation on the Italian Sonnet, in which the rhyme scheme is kept but the “turn” between the octave and the sestet is eliminated.

Italian sonnet
a sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba, followed by a sestet with the rhyme pattern cdecde or cdcdcd

Petrarchan sonnet
a sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba, followed by a sestet with the rhyme pattern cdecde or cdcdcd

Volta
also referred to as the turn, is the shift or point of dramatic change in a poem. The term is most frequently used in discussion of sonnet form, in which the volta marks a shift in thought (often from question to answer or problem to solution).

octave
a rhythmic group of eight lines of verse

octet
eight lines

sestet
a rhythmic group of six lines of verse

Caudate sonnet
A standard fourteen-line sonnet is augmented by the addition of other lines, including “tails”.

sonnet cycle
a series of related sonnets with the same subject

curtal sonnet
Gerard Manley Hopkins’s name for a sonnet that has been curtailed, or shortened, to parts consisting of six lines and four and a half lines.

crown of sonnets
Seven sonnets interlinked by having the last line of the first form the first line of the second, the last line of the second from the first line of the third, and so forth, with the last line of the last sonnet repeating the first line of the first.

link sonnet
An English Sonnet in which the three quatrains are linked by repeating the second rhyme of one quatrain as the first rhyme of the succeeding quatrain.