a person, an object, an image, a word, or an event that evokes a range of additional meaning beyond and usually more abstract than its literal significance

Conventional symbol
have meanings that are widely recognized by a society or culture

Contextual symbol
can be a setting, a character, an action, an object, a name, or anything else in a work that maintains its literal significance while suggesting other meanings

a narration or description usually restricted to a single meaning because its events, actions, characters, setting, and objects represent specific abstractions or ideas.

Didactic poetry
poetry designed to teach an ethical, moral, or religious lesson

a literary device that uses contradictory statements or situations to reveal a reality different from wha appears to be true

Situational irony
exist when there is an incongruity between what is expected to happen and what the reader or audience member knows to be true

Verbal irony
occurs when a person says one thing but means the opposite

the literary art of ridiculing a folly or vice in order to expose or correct it.

Dramatic irony
creates a discrepancy between what a character believes or says and wants

Cosmic irony
occurs when a writer uses God, destiny, or fate to dash the hopes and expectations of a character or of humankind in general