metaphor
a figure of speech that makes a comparison equating two or more unlike things without using “like” or “as.”

simile
figures of speech that use the words like or as to make comparisons

alliteration
the repetition of the same sound at the beginning of words

assonance
repetition of a vowel sound (a, e, i, o, u)

consonance
repetition of a consonant sound

caesura
a pause within a line

enjambment
when the reader should continue to the next line of poetry without pausing

internal rhyme
rhyme that happens within a line, instead of only at the end

rhythm
the recurring pattern of strong and weak syllabic stresses

onomatopoeia
the use of a word whose sound suggests its meaning

rhyme scheme
the pattern of end rhyme in a poem

ballad
a story-telling, song-like form of poetry

free verse
a poem with no regular meter, no rhyme scheme

personification
giving inanimate objects living qualities

sonnet
a form of poetry with 14 lines of iambic pentameter

symbol
an object that stands for an abstract idea

synecdoche
using a part of a thing to refer to the whole

iamb
a poetic foot with 2 syllables: da-DUM

anapest
a poetic foot with 3 syllables: da-da-DUM

trochee
a poetic foot with 2 syllables: DA-dum

dactyl
a poetic foot with 3 syllables: DA-da-dum

spondee
a poetic foot with 2 stressed syllables: DA-DUM

oxymoron
an expression that seems to contradict itself, but actually does not

quatrain
a four-line stanza

couplet
a two-line stanza

haiku
a 17-syllable, delicate, unrhymed Japanese verse, usually about nature

limerick
a 5-line, rhymed, rhythmic verse, usually humorous

hyperbole
intentionally exaggerated figures of speech

mood
the overall feeling or atmosphere created by the author’s use of language

tone
the author’s attitude toward the subject of the poem or a character in the poem