narrator
person who narrates a poem

voice
The way the writer uses language to reflect his or her unique personality and attitude toward a topic.

irony
The difference between appearance and reality.

diction
The poet’s choice of words and how those word choices express ideas and emotions.

dramatic irony
Something is known by the reader or audience but is unknown to the characters.

verbal irony
A character says one thing but means another

irony of situation
An event occurs that violates the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience.

methods to discover tone
You can read aloud, notice and identify the words that stand out and think about the connotation of words, consider the speaker of the poem, and compare and contrast the poem’s themes or subjects with those of others

setting
time, place, and the details used to create a particular sense of place and time

sensory details
words or phrases that describe how something looks, sounds, feels, tastes, or smells

Why might a poet use sensory details?
to help establish setting

What is context?
Conditions in which the poem occurs. It is related to
setting but focuses more on the environment of the time and place.

historical context
the time period in which the poem was written or of the events it describes

cultural context
the culture of the poet, speaker, or subject of the poem

elegy
a formal poem lamenting a death

tanka
a traditional Japanese poem of five lines and thirty-one syllables

ode
a poem intended to honor or praise someone or something

sonnet
a 14-line poem typically written in iambic pentameter

ballad
poem made up of four line rhyming stanzas that tells a story

narrative poem
a poem that tells a story

dramatic poem
special type of narrative poetry that relies on elements of drama, such as monologue or dialogue, to tell the story

lyric poem
expresses the emotions of the speaker and tends to be musical in style

prose poem
a passage of prose that is so poetic in nature that the line between poetry and prose is blurred

free verse
a type of lyric poetry that is free from regular rhyme, meter, or stanza division

blank verse
unrhymed poetry written in iambic pentameter

simile
a comparison between two dissimilar objects using the word like or as

metaphor
a comparison between two dissimilar objects without using
the word like or as

analogy
a comparison of two things that are alike in some ways but
mostly very different

personification
a figure of speech in which an animal, idea, or thing is given
human characteristics

symbolism
an example of something standing for both itself and
something else

hyperbole
literary overstatement or exaggeration

allegory
a work in which all the characters, events, or setting symbolize something else

imagery
the language used in literature that creates mental pictures inside the mind of the reader

rhyme scheme
a pattern of rhymes at the end of lines

assonance
the repetition of vowel sounds

consonance
a similarity in consonant sounds in non-rhyming words

alliteration
the same sound repeated at the beginning of several words

onomatopoeia
the use of words or phrases that sound like the things that they refer to

repetition
repeating a word or phrase