Free Verse
natural speech rhythms replace meter

Blank Verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter

Couplet
two successive lines, usually the same meter, linked by rhyme

Rhyme
repetition of accented vowel sound and all succeeding sounds in importantly positioned words

Feminine Rhyme
Rhyming stressed syllable followed by rhyming unstressed syllable (ex. mountain/fountain; hurrying/scurrying)

Masculine Rhyme
Rhyme falls in stressed concluding syllables of words

Slant Rhyme
near rhyme; usually substitution of assonance or consonance (Lids/Lads or yellow/willow)

Eye Rhyme
words appear as though they should rhyme, but they don’t (ex. Cough/tough(

Alliteration
repetition of same consonant

Assonance
repetition of vowel sounds

Onomatopoeia
words whose sounds suggest meaning

Enjambment
allows one line to run over to the next

Caesura
slight but definite pause within a line/break in metrical line

Cadence
modulation caused by the rise and fall of the voice; inner tune of a sentence or line

Narrative Poetry
poem that tells a story

Epic
long narrative poem

Ballad
fairly short narrative poem; song-like stanza form

Lyric Poetry
brief subjective poem creating single unified effect

Elegy
meditation on death or another solemn theme

Ode
romantic, antique form, addresses object that attracts poet’s imagination

Pastoral
nostalgic and unrealiztic, simple rural lives

Dramatic Monologue
speaker reveals his/her character through extended speech not addressed to audience

Sonnet
14 lines; iambic pentameter

Epigram
short, witty poem; makes a pointed statement

allusion
A reference to something literary, mythological, or historical

connotation
The implied or associative meaning of a word

denotation
The literal meaning of a word

diction
Having to do with the word choices made by a writer

syntax
The manner in which words are arranged by a writer into sentences

tone
The attitude of a write, usually implied, toward the subject or audience

colloquialism
Informal words or expressions not usually acceptable in formal writing

oxymoron
An expression in which two words that contradict each other are joined

personification
Endowing non-human objects or creatures with human qualities or characteristics

anaphora
the repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of consecutive lines of speech

analogy
A comparison between two different things which are similar in some way

paradox
An apparently contradictory statement which contains some truth

parody
A humorous imitation of a serious work

symbol
An object which is something in itself yet is used to represent something else

aphorism
A concise statement, which expresses succinctly as general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance

hyperbole
Intentional exaggeration to create an effect

apostrophe
The act of directly speaking to an absent or imaginary person, or to some abstraction

didactic
Something, which has as its primary purpose to teach or instruct

genre
A major category or type of literature

litotes
A type of understatement in which something affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite

metonymy
Substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it

invective
An intensely vehement, highly emotional verbal attack

euphemism
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant

onomatopoeia
A word formed from the imitation of natural sounds

conceit
An extended metaphor